When I began my career in education, I believed the value I brought to the classroom was my subject area expertise cultivated as an English major at UCLA and my pedagogical expertise honed while working on my teaching credential and Masters in Education. I operated under that misguided assumption for years. I remember feeling intense pressure to have the “right answer” when students asked questions. It was scary not to know because I believed my value was in being the expert. I was wrong.

As I work with teachers navigating the demands of this moment, I share the lesson I learned early on in my career. A teacher’s value lies not in their expertise but in their ability to connect with learners. Our value lies in the human side of teaching. That is the work we do that cannot be replaced by technology.

It is the educators who understand this truth and design and facilitate learning experiences that align with this truth who have had the most success navigating this challenging moment in education.

In my latest book, Balance with Blended Learning, I write about strategies that turn everyday tasks, like giving feedback, assessing student work, and conferencing with students about progress into opportunities for connection. Conferencing sessions are one of the most effective strategies for connecting with learners in class or online.

Like much of the work I do in education, I would love conferencing to prioritize student agency. If we set aside time each month to engage with students in a conferencing format, can we allow them to decide how they want to use that time? I have designed the 4Ps approach to conferencing to guide teachers in running student-centered conferences.

PurposePreparationPost-Conference PlanParent Communication
How do students want to use this time? Can you provide options for them to choose from? What do they need to do to prepare for the conference? Should they bring specific pieces of work or come with questions?What are the next steps for the student and the teacher following the conference? What will students need to do to “act” on what they learned during the conference? What additional support might the teacher need to provide?How can students communicate with their parents or guardians about the content of the conference and their next steps? What platform would allow them to send this update about their progress (e.g., email, audio update)?

Teachers can guide students through these 4Ps using the template below.


First, students select the purpose of their conference time. This choice provides them with agency and recognizes that this time can be used in a variety of ways depending on what individual students need.

Then students prepare for their conference. If they want to discuss their goals and progress, they will need their goal-setting sheet. If they request a 1:1 coaching session, they should have work they are struggling with or questions about specific content or skills they want to focus on. Regardless of the conference’s purpose, I would encourage students to come prepared with at least one question in their preparation column.

This preparation work is best done during class. Again, we make time for what we value, and the more time students invest in the pre-conference work, the more effective the conference is likely to be.

During the Conference

It is ideal if both the teacher and student have access to the planning document during the conference. I have created the template in Google Documents so that it is easy to share a copy with every student. Students can capture their “post-conference plan” or action items during the conference, and the teacher can do the same. I love the implicit message that the teacher and student collaborating on this shared document sends about their partnership in learning.


Immediately following the conference, I would like students to communicate with their parents or guardians about their progress. I want students to own this conversation whenever possible. Can they email their parents or send an audio update describing the purpose of the conference and their plan following the conference?

To create time for conferencing, teachers will have to design learning experiences that allow students to lead the learning. Below are strategies they can use:

I understand that teachers are short on time, now more than ever. Yet, we make time for what we value. I would love to see teachers design lessons that allow them to connect with individual learners. Human connection and the feeling of being seen and supported are most likely to motivate students to lean into learning. It is easier for students to disengage–decide not to attend class or choose not to complete work–when they do not feel connected to their teacher. This feeling of disconnection can be exacerbated when students are learning online. Conferencing in class or online can help our students feel seen and supported.

For teachers who want to do a deep dive into these design strategies, I am in the final stages of designing an “Advanced Blended and Online Learning” self-paced course that will be available before the end of the year. The goal of that course is to build on my “Getting Started with Blended and Online Learning Course” to help teachers develop their skill sets. The advanced course will guide teachers through the design process for these various models with videos, resources, and templates. If you would like to receive an email when my advanced course is available for purchase, add your name and email to this form.

6 Responses

  1. By “end of the year”, do you mean 2020 or the ’20-’21 school year? (As I start teaching a bunch of new preps mid-January, I’m hoping you mean within the next week or so!)

    • Hi Kathrine,

      Yes, I should have been more clear. This year…2020 😊 I’ve been working hard to get it out ASAP. I am hoping it will be available by the end of the week. Fingers crossed!

      Take care.

  2. I’m looking forward to it. I spend so much time thinking/living in terms of the school-year that I forget there is another type:)

  3. I liked the sheet for conferences. It lets the student have a say in what is talked about. What do you do if a student says they have nothing they want to discuss or just say “I’m good”?

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