Project Zero at Harvard’s Graduate School of Education has created a collection of Core Thinking Routines as part of their Visible Thinking Project. Teachers can view the entire collection on the Project Zero website, where each routine is described in detail (e.g., purpose, application, launch) in both English and Spanish.
These routines encourage students to be intentional thinkers.
What do they know or notice?
What is their perspective or position on an issue or idea?
How can they support their position or thinking?
What do they wonder? What are they confused about?
How has their thinking changed? What caused that change?
These thinking routines can be modified and adjusted for different age levels and subject areas, making them extremely versatile. As teachers read the descriptions of each routine provided on the Project Zero website, it is clear that these routines would work well to engage students in dynamic face-to-face activities and discussions. Given that many teachers are working with students online, at least part-time, I created the Google Slide decks below for teachers to copy and use in an online learning scenario. Each slide deck focuses on a specific thinking routine and is designed to engage the entire class. That way, students can learn with and from each other.
The title of each thinking routine is linked to a detailed PDF created by Project Zero describing the routine and how teachers can use it.
The image of each Google slide deck is hyperlinked to a sharable version. In order to make a copy, you need to be signed in to your Google account so that the copy has a place to save. When you click on the slide deck you want to use, you’ll be prompted to “make a copy.” Once you have your copy, you can edit and modify it.
The structure of each slide deck (e.g., tables, icons, instructions) is built into the master view of each slide so students cannot change it when working on their slides. To edit or modify the slide decks for your grade level and subject area, click “View” at the top of the slide deck. Then click “Master” to make changes on the back end of the slide deck.
Since these slide decks are designed for the whole class, you will need to share the deck via Google Classroom, or your learning management system, so that anyone with access can edit the slide deck. You should have a conversation with your students ahead of time about only editing the slide deck with their name on it.
Teachers using these thinking routines with students can share their experiences using the hashtags associated with each. I’ve included the hashtag for each thinking routine on each of the Google slide decks. I would love for teachers using these routines with students in a blended learning or online learning scenario to share how they are using them. That way, we can crowdsource ideas to inspire other educators to try these valuable thinking routines! You can post a comment here sharing your specific lesson or you can post a note on Twitter with the hashtag for the thinking routine and tag me @Catlin_Tucker.
In my last blog, I focused on the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principle of representation. I described how blended and online learning can help educators provide opportunities for students to perceived and engage with information presented in multiple modalities. I highlighted some of the affordances available online that can help students to manipulate digital information to make it more accessible.
In this post, I want to explore the third, and final, UDL principle of action and expression. Students have different strengths and limitations, so asking them to express their ideas in a single way (e.g., written response or verbal explanation) may not allow all students to effectively showcase what they’ve learned, or share what they know. It is critical to think about offering students agency when it comes to expression.
Action and Expression
Within the principle of action and expression, there are three guidelines: 1) physical action, 2) expression and communication, and 3) executive functions.
Traditional textbooks or workbooks provide limited means of interacting with information. As schools think about making learning accessible for all students, it is important to consider how instructional materials allow students to interact with information. For example, some educational products pair text with audio recordings to allow students flexibility in terms of their engagement with a text.
Often the devices students are using, like Chromebooks, have accessibility features (shown below) that can be adjusted to meet their specific needs or preferences. Students can enable select-to-speak and highlight the text they want to hear, they can enable diction making it possible to speak instead of type, and they can magnify what is on the screen or dock. It is important to let students know these features are available as it isn’t always possible for teachers to know which features will be most useful to students as they work online. I encourage teachers to record a quick screencast highlighting these accessibility features on the devices students are using so that they and their families are aware of these features.
Similarly, teachers may want to explore the tools available in the technology tools they are already using with students. For example, students who are unable to type can use voice-to-text tools to compose responses to questions or complete written assignments inside of Google Documents.
Expression and Communication
Teachers know that not all students excel at expressing their ideas or communicating what they know in the same way. Instead of requiring that all students surface their ideas or learning in the same way, teachers should consider providing various avenues from which students can choose. This choice allows students to select a strategy for communicating their ideas that is comfortable for them. It also yields a variety of products, which may be more interesting for teachers reviewing student work.
Blended learning and online learning provide a much-needed excuse to reimagine how teachers design learning experiences for students. Instead of planning a single lesson or experience for all students, which still happens in many physical classrooms, the online environment offers students multiple ways to access and interact with information and share what they have learned. If teachers embrace and celebrate that flexibility, students will experience more success when learning online.
The process of setting goals, monitoring progress, and engaging in conversations with teachers about their academic growth can help students to develop their executive functioning skills. These are critical routines designed to help students build their metacognitive muscles, engage actively in their learning, and partner with their teachers in the learning process.
In my book Balance with Blended Learning, I share strategies teachers can use to support students in setting goals and tracking their progress toward those goals. I also emphasize the value of engaging students in regular conversations about their academic progress and anchoring those conversations in the academic, personal, and behavioral goals they have identified as valuable or important.
As I work with educators adapting to teaching online, I emphasize the importance of variety, flexibility, and student agency. Instead of viewing blended or online learning as inferior to the face-to-face experience, I’d love to see educators leverage the advantages of teaching and learning online by embracing the flexibility it affords and the opportunities it presents to allow students to customize their virtual learning environment and use a range of online tools to express themselves.
In my last blog, I focused on the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) principle of engagement. I highlighted how blended learning can help educators more effectively provide multiple means of engagement to increase student motivation and ensure all students can successfully engage with learning experiences. I shared strategies designed to develop self-regulation skills, sustain effort and persistence, and recruit interest.
In this post, I want to explore the principle of representation, which is focused on providing students with access to multiple ways of experiencing or receiving information. Different learners enjoy engaging with information in different formats, and some learners have sensory or perceptual disabilities that make it challenging to interact with information presented in traditional print formats.
Within the principle of representation, there are three guidelines: 1) perception, 2) language and symbols, and 3) comprehension.
All learners must be able to perceive important information. That is easier to accomplish if 1) the information is presented in multiple modalities that invite a degree of student agency, or choice, and 2) the information can be manipulated or customized by the student.
Teachers may want to explore using a choice board or hyperdoc format to present information in multiple modalities. That way, students can engage with information in a format that appeals to or is more accessible for them. For example, teachers can provide students with the option to read a digital text, listen to a podcast or audio recording, watch a video, or engage with an infographic/visual information on a topic.
The Google document template below has a choice board format at the top of the document where teachers can link to information presented in a variety of forms as well space below for students to capture their notes, make connections, and ask questions.
In addition to allowing students to engage with information in a variety of formats, it is helpful if students can manipulate the information they are engaging with to make it more accessible. Customizing information is easier to do when teachers make that information available digitally. Digital resources may allow students to enlarge text, slow down audio, access close captioning on videos.
Enlarge digital texts
Students can enlarge the print on their computer screens by pressing the Control button and the plus key (+).
Slow down the speed of a YouTube video
In the lower right-hand corner of a YouTube video, students can click the Settings cog and adjust the speed of the video.
Add closed captioning to YouTube videos
In the lower right-hand corner of a YouTube video, students can click the Settings cog and turn on closed captioning so that text will appear to complement the audio.
Teachers using Screencastify and sharing video content directly from their Google Drive can also add close captioning on those videos. Click here to access instructions.
Since many classes are happening online using video conferencing tools, like Google Meet, teachers should explore tools that allow them to capture text transcripts of those virtual classes. Tactiq is a Chrome extension that allows the teacher to turn on captions and save a transcript of the entire meeting. Making a text transcript (as well as a recorded video of the meeting) available to students after the class is over will help support them in accessing any information they missed during the synchronous session.
As teachers provide students with feedback online, I would encourage them to explore tools like Mote, which allow them to leave audio feedback. Not only does Mote allow teachers to record audio comments, but it also creates a typed transcript of those audio comments. That way, students can listen to and read the teacher’s feedback.
Language and Symbols
When information is presented in language, symbols, or visual formats, teachers should keep in mind that not all students will have the same understanding or interpretation of that information. A student’s cultural background or prior knowledge may impact their level of understanding or their specific interpretation of a word, symbol, or image. The following strategies can help teachers to improve both the clarity and comprehensibility of the information presented in a class.
Frontload, or pre-teach, vocabulary and symbols
Start a new unit by frontloading key academic terms, vocabulary words, or symbols to ensure all students know what these words and symbols mean as they navigate the unit.
Help students orient their new learning in a larger context by making clear connections between their previous learning and the new information being presented. Concept maps and sketchnotes are an effective way to help students to make these connections.
Use multiple forms of media
Present important information, or key concepts, using more than one form of media. For example, in a digital text, teachers can hyperlink to dictionary definitions, images, diagrams, or animations to aid comprehension.
Learning is a complex process in which learners take information and turn it into knowledge they can use when making decisions or approaching new and novel situations or tasks. Below is an example of a graphic organizer that teachers can give students to help them improve their comprehension by:
Accessing prior knowledge
Creating an analogy or comparison
Making connections to other classes
Asking questions or surfacing wonderings
I created the graphic organizer below in a Google Slide deck so that I could insert an audio file in the upper left-hand corner with a verbal explanation of the directions for students.
Below is a quick video tutorial for anyone who is interested in adding audio instructions to a Google Slide deck.
I would also encourage teachers who are using Google apps to click on “Tools” and select “Accessibility” to review the accessibility features.
Teachers can align blended and online learning with UDL principles and capitalize on the affordances of digital learning environments to help all students learn more effectively. In my next blog, I will explore the UDL principle of action and expression using the lens of blended and online learning.